Russian Fort Elizabeth
In 1815 the Russian doctor, Georg Scheffer, arrived in Hawaii to gain trading privileges from King Kamehameha, who had created a kingdom incorporating all the islands of Hawaii. The Russian went to Kauai, nominally under the control of King Kaumualii, to salvage Russian cargo being held in Waimea. Once on Kauai, Scheffer gained the confidence of King Kaumualii when he promised the king that Czar Nicholas would help him to break free of Kamehameha's rule. Kaumualii allowed Scheffer to build a fort near Waimea and two others near Hanalei. However, Scheffer did not have the backing of the Russian Czar and was forced to leave Kauai. Russian Fort Elizabeth eventually went under the control of Kamehameha supporters and years later was used to put down a rebellion by Kaumualii's son, George Prince Kaumualii. It is the only remaining Russian fort in Hawaii.